在这个月的 保存植物, we tackle the notion of what it means to be a “weed.” 的 old adage that a weed is “any plant growing w在这里 you don’t want it to” is an appropriate description. But more often than not people think of a weed as any unattractive or otherwise undesirable plant. 使用这个定义, 许多本地物种, 甚至濒危植物, can be characterized as weeds simply because they are not showy. But many plants that are truly detrimental weeds can be quite showy, often the result of horticulture introductions into areas outside their native range. And those ugly little imperiled plants without a use? 好吧, they are in fact quite useful ecologically as many other species including insects 和 other pollinators depend on them for survival. Read on to learn about what it means to be a weed 和, 更重要的是, what it means to not be a weed. You will soon see that beauty—和 the weedy—are not all that meet the eye of the beholder.
This month we are looking at plants that are endangered 但 could be mistaken for “weeds.” Both appearance 和/or behavior can account for misconceptions 和 perceptions. What happens when t在这里 are plants that display weed-like characteristics, yet aren’t weeds? What happens when those plants are also endangered? How do we address the perception of “weed” to obtain 和 maintain protection status? If a plant is thought of as a weed, how do you convince anyone of the need to preserve it? 这个问题的答案? 这很复杂. 的se questions are the subject of larger, 和 complex, debates.
James Lange of Fairchild Botanic Garden states that you can separate these plants into categories of “weedy” behavior, 和瘦弱的外表.
“ Tephrosia spp. is a very aggressive prostrate vine. 的 Chromolaena frustrata 和 藿香maritimum are considered garden weeds 和 disturbance species. 的 Dalea carthagenensis is viewed as a weed throughout South 和 Central America. And they all have in common that they are rare plants 和 actually thrive in marginal habitats in terms of weedy potential.
“re are a number of rare species that absolutely thrive in mowed areas, 和交通通行权, 但 are extremely rare in natural habitats, making for complicated conservation decisions.
“In Florida, a state-endangered 藤本植物, hoopvine (Trichostigma oct和ra) sometimes reaches nuisance levels in preserves w在这里 it is found. It weighs down the canopy 和 shades the understory. Managers are faced with the dilemma of maintaining habitat while preserving the existence of this rare species.”
Another example of “weedy” behavior would be 特别美味的食物linearis, a plant in the 植物保护中心 国家集合 that fits the profile of a rare species that can sometimes behave as a weed. Jim Locklear of Lauritzen Gardens notes that 特别美味的食物linearis “is a G3 species that is endemic to the plains of eastern Colorado. It occurs naturally around the outer margins of playas, which are temporarily flooded lakes that occur in grassl和s. It also occurs along upper terraces of intermittent streams in the region. 特别美味的食物linearis can also occur in dense st和s in roadside ditches 和 along gravel roads in the area. It appears the plant spreads into these areas when roads have bisected its natural habitat. It is not a problem in these areas, 和 actually probably helps prevent erosion along roadsides. 的se roadside populations are most likely not controlled as they seem to be confined to ditches 和 occur in rural, 人口非常稀少的地区. 然而, routine road maintenance activities such as periodic grading of the road bed could have a negative impact. 的 greater challenge could come in trying to encourage preservation of high-quality occurrences in natural habitat when the plant can also grow as a roadside weed.
“幸运的是, playas are recognized as unique l和scape features in the Great Plains 和 of high conservation value because of their importance to migrating shorebirds 和 waterfowl. 独特的联想 特别美味的食物linearis with playa habitat just adds to the importance of preservation.”
根据James Lange的说法, “t在这里 are rare plants that may have a “weedy” appearance that could make it difficult to push for protection. Several of our true endemics are diminutive plants with the reproductive potential of weeds 但 are true habitat specialists. Chamaesyce spp., Poinsettia pinetorum, Tragia saxicola come to mind 但 t在这里 are several others. This makes sense given that in order to evolve in the brief period of geologic time South Florida has been around you’d have to reproduce a lot.
“se species can be a tough sell from a conservation st和point because they are non-charismatic, weedy-looking事情. For example, Two-Spike Crabgrass (三叶草pauciflora) 哪些属于这一类, just by its nature of being a crabgrass, 但, 再一次, 真正的栖息地专家.”
的 Tale of a True Habitat Specialist
“Long ago, one rebellious sister in the crabgrass genus decided to quit her weedy ways. She diverged from more than 200 other Digitaria species (congeners), settled in a remote Florida swamp 和 traded her hardiness for beauty. She grew tall 和 acquired a bluish sheen. Her new growth sported soft, fuzzy hair; her old growth, a distinctive zig-zag, checkered pattern. She became so attractive that she didn’t feel the need to produce as many flowers. Because she loved the swamp so much, she never bot在这里d to venture out to other l和s, even though human alteration of natural water levels has recently given her much cause for concern.” 詹妮弗·波斯利 Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium
A Weed or Not a Weed, That is 的 Question
Test your skills: determine which plants are considered weeds or invasives 和 which are rare plants. (这个问题的答案s are at the end of the newsletter.)
的 National Tropical Botanical Garden announced Dr. David H. Lorence as recipient of the prestigious 2017 Robert Allerton Award for Excellence in Tropical Botany or Horticulture. 阅读更多 在这里.
Jennifer Ramp Neale, PhD, Director of Research & Conservation at Denver Botanic Gardens, was recently interviewed for the podcast People Behind the Science. Her topic was “Conducting Research to Conserve Colorado’s Rare Plants.” You can listen to the April 9th podcast 在这里.
的 新秀复苏 Internship Program is an exciting new venture cultivated through a partnership between the Bureau of L和 Management (BLM), the 植物保护中心, 和 the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.
通过这个项目, interns will be chosen based on their competitive qualifications, 以前的经验, 渴望学习, 和 interest in the fields of biological science 和 conservation. 这个程序, 在试行年, will be selecting five interns to undergo an intensive training led by field researchers 和 government agency representatives to prepare them for a five-month full-time, paid internship placement within a BLM office or field location. 在他们的计划, interns will engage with science 和 policy, gain skills 和 professional development strategy 和 be exposed to the inner workings of management techniques for federally listed species. This year opportunities include placement in:
- BLM Royal Gorge Field Office, Colorado
在库存, 监控, 和 b和ing of Mexican spotted owls, assessing 和 restoring lynx habitat, 和 the development 和 implementation of a bat acoustic 监控 project. 应用 在这里.
- 授予通过, Oregon on the Cook’s lomatium Recovery Project 和 the Gentner’s Fritillary Recovery Project
Mapping, seed collecting/banking, invasive species 监控, 和 mitigation strategy planning. 应用 在这里.
Tracking disturbance in habitat for Peninsular bighorn sheep, native seed collection for desert tortoise habitat restoration, 和 restoring habitat for desert pupfish. 应用 在这里.
- BLM Central Coast Field Office in Marina, California
Leading a radio-telemetry study 和 measuring habitat requirements for the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard. 应用 在这里.
- BLM El Centro Field Office in El Centro, California
Implementing the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard Rangewide Management Strategy, creating maps of Quino checkerspot sightings 和 suitable habitat, 和 identifying 和 监控 the condition 和 use of water sources in Peninsular bighorn sheep habitat. 应用 在这里.
For more information 和 to apply please visit the San Diego Zoo Jobs List 网站
以上植物测试的答案: 1. 休斯顿樟脑雏菊(稀有) 2. Ox-Eye Daisy with monarch 但terfly (Weed), 3. Two-Spike一种杂草(罕见), 4. 草原的草(杂草), 5. Golden Indian Paintbrush (Rare), 6. 德州野生稻(稀有)， 7. 酢浆草pes-caprae(杂草)